The iPEN modules

The iPEN project targets to cultivate and offer training in three sections: (1) in photonics skills requested from the nanotechnology & market needs; (2) in soft skills most requested from the market needs; and (3) in teaching, offline and online, skills of the academics in order to become better teachers.

The iPEN modules are divided into categories regarding their duration: in long and short modules. The former last 10 lecture sessions, (2 hours per lecture session – total 20 hours) and the latter last 5 lecture sessions (2 hours per session – total 10 hours).

The iPEN photonics oriented modules are divided into two categories: fundamental and technical modules. The idea behind the project is its modules to be able to be exploited by any academic within existed courses or to use the iPEN modules as lego bricks and build a new course.

All the iPEN module material is uploaded into the iPEN Moodle educational platform

iPEN Photonic Modules

Fundamental Modules

Module Title An Introduction to Fundamental Optics
Abstract In this course we will give an introduction to fundamental optics, discussing the properties of light and its propagation, of optical components, the phenomena of interference and diffraction. We will introduce some aspects related to absorption, scattering and dispersion. Finally, an outlook on light sources and optical instruments will be presented,
Glossary 1) Properties of light: propagation of light, refractive index, laws of reflection and refraction

2) Prisms, Lenses, Mirrors

3) Ray tracing

4) Wave optics

5) Interference and diffraction

6) Absorption and scattering

7) Dispersion

8) Polarization of light

9) Source of light and optical instruments
Learning Outcomes To give students an introductory understanding of the principles of optics
Bibliography F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics
https://seanghor.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/fundamentals-of-optics_0072561912.pdf
Introduction to Optics, Pedrotti & Pedrotti & Pedrotti
External Evaluator Prof. Fabio Cicoira
Responsible Academic Prof. Francesco Scotognella (POLIMI)
Awarded ECTS5
Module TitleAn Introduction to Laser Physics and Systems
AbstractThis module will present the fundamentals of laser devices. The module will start with the Einstein equations, provide the conditions to have lasing and the characteristics of this lasing radiation. An introduction to the generation of laser pulses will be provided with the introduction of the mode locking and Q-Switching techniques. Finally the most common met laser systems in an undergraduate and postgraduate laboratories will be presented. Such systems are: diode lasers, He-Neon Lasers, Ti:Sapphire Lasers, Nd:YAG laser systems.
Glossary Chapter One
Historical Review of Lasers, General Properties of Laser Light, Fundamental Building Blocks of a Laser Device

Chapter Two
Einstein Equations, Absorption of Light, Small gain coefficient, Threshold Point, Population Inversion, 3-level & 4-level energy laser systems, Population Inversion at threshold

Chapter Three
Examples of laser systems: (1) Helium Neon Laser; (2) Argon Ion Laser System; (3) Laser Diodes; (4) Nd:YAG; (5)Copper Vapor; (6)Dye Laser

Chapter Four
Emission Linewidth, Broadening Mechanisms: Inhomogeneous and Homogeneous Broadening Mechanisms, The Lineshape function

Chapter Five
Absorption/Emission Cross Section, Gain Saturation

Chapter Six
The Resonator, Resonator Modes: Longitudinal Modes & Transverse Modes, Resonator Stability Condition

Chapter Seven
Matrix Optics

Chapter Eight
Gaussian Optics, Spatial Hole Burning, Ring Cavities

Chapter Nine
Coupled Rate Equations, Q-Switching: Passive & Active, Mode - Locking: Active & Passive
Learning Outcomes - Learning Fundamentals of Lasers
- Learning Fundamental Lasers Systems
Bibliography1. Laser Fundamentals by W.T. Silfvast, Cambridge University Press
2. Laser Physics, S. Hooker & C. Webb, Oxford University Press
3. Principles of Lasers, O. Svelto
4. Laser Lecture Notes, University of St-Andrews
External Evaluator Prof. Graham Turnbul (St-Andrews)
Responsible AcademicAss. Prof. Konstantinos Petridis (TEI of Crete)
Module TitleFundamentals of Nanosensors
AbstractThis is a course for people who are interested in learning about novel sensing tools that makes use of nanotechnology (a technology that relies in the regime between one to hundred nanometers, viz. billionths of the meters) to screen, and monitor various events in either our personal or professional life. Together, we will discover the fascinating world of nanoland that bumps up against the basic building blocks of matter. As such, we will lay the groundwork for infinite innovative applications in every part of our daily life, starting from in-vivo and ex-vivo diagnosis and treatments of diseases, continuing with quality control of goods and environmental aspects, and ending with monitoring security issues. In this endeavor, we will learn how to fabricate such new tools, how to characterize them, how to control them, and how to integrate them in the various applications.
GlossaryLesson 1: Introduction to Nanotechnology: Definition of nanotechnology; main features of nanomaterials; types of nanostructures (0D, 1D, and 2D structures); nanocomposites; and main chemical/physical/electrical/optical properties of nanomaterials. Methods for characterizing the nanomaterials: Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and spectroscopy- and spectrometry-based surface analysis techniques. Fabrication of sensors by bottom-up and top-down approaches; self-assembly of nanostructures; and examples for nanotechnology application
Lesson 2: Introduction to Sensors' Science and Technology: Definition of sensors; main elements of sensors; similarities between living organisms and artificial sensors; working mechanism of physical sensation (seeing, hearing, and feeling) and chemical sensation (smelling and tasting); the parameters used for characterizing the performance of sensors: accuracy, precision, sensitivity, detection limit, dynamic range, selectivity, linearity, resolution, response time, hysteresis, and life cycle.
Lesson 3: Metal nanoparticle-based Sensors: Definition of nanoparticle; features of nanoparticles; and production of nanoparticles by physical approach (laser ablation) and chemical approaches (Brust method, seed-mediated growth, etc.). Applications of metal nanoparticle-based sensors in (bio)chemical, environmental and biomedical engineering. Quantum Dot Sensors: Definition of quantum dot; fabrication techniques of quantum dots; Macroscopic and microscopic photoluminescence measurements; applications of quantum dots as multimodal contrast agents in bioimaging; and application of quantum dots as biosensors.
Lesson 4: Nanowire-based Sensors: Definition of nanowires; features of nanowires; fabrication of individual nanowire by top-down approaches and bottom-up approaches; and fabrication of nanowire arrays (fluidic channel, blown bubble film, contact printing, spray coating, etc.). Applications of metal nanoparticle-based sensors in (bio)chemical, environmental and biomedical engineering.
Lesson 5: Carbon Nanotubes-based Sensors: Definition of carbon nanotube; features of carbon nanotubes; synthesis of carbon nanotubes; fabrication and working principles of sensors based on individual carbon nanotube; fabrication and working principles of sensors based on random array of carbon nanotubes.
Lesson 6: Sensors Based on Nanostructures of Metal Oxide: Synthesis of metal oxide structures by dry and wet methods; types of metal oxide gas sensors (0D, 1D, and 2D); defect chemistry of the metal oxide sensors; sensing mechanism of metal-oxide gas sensors; and porous metal-oxide structures for improved sensing applications.
Lesson 7: Mass-Sensitive Sensors: Working principle of sensors based on polymeric nanostructures; sensing mechanism and applications of nanomaterial-based of chemiresistors and field effect transistors of (semi-)conductive polymers, w/o inorganic materials.

Lesson 8: Optical Nanomaterial-based Sensors: Working principles of optical measurements; fabrication of optical sensors by nano-materials; sensing mechanisms of different optical sensors, such as plasmonics, waveguides and optical fibers, ionic, electrooptical and optomechanical sensors.
Lesson 9: Biological Nanomaterial-based Sensors: Working principles of biosensors: fundamental design, operation, and types of biosensors, bio-nano-materials for devices and fabrication methods, examples and applications of biosensors
Lesson 10: Arrays of Nanomaterial-based Sensors: A representative example for the imitation of human senses by means of nanotechnology and sensors: electronic skin based on nanotechnology.
Learning Outcomes1. Understanding the importance of nanoscale materials for sensing applications.
2. Knowledge on the approaches used for characterizing sensors based nanomaterials.
3. Knowledge on the approaches used for tailoring nanomaterials for a specific sensing application.
4. Knowledge of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles.
5. Knowledge of organic and inorganic nanotubes and nanowires.
6. Knowledge of optical, mechanical and chemical sensors based on nanomaterials.
7. Knowledge of hybrid nanomaterial-based sensors.
Bibliography• Jiří Janata, Principles of Chemical Sensors, Springer, 2d Edition (1989).
• Roger George Jackson, Novel Sensors and Sensing, CRC Press (2004).
External EvaluatorProfessor Barak Miriam, Faculty of Education in Science & Technology, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
Responsible AcademicProf. Hossam Haick (TECHNION)
Awarded ECTS5
Module TitleBiomedical and Biosensing Optical Devices
AbstractThe course deals with the structure and principles of operation of a variety of optical instruments for medical diagnosis and optical sensors for analytes detection. It can be divided into three main parts:
a. Optical biosensors: basic optical principles used for optical biosensing such as: absorption, TIR, surface waves such as SPR, waveguides and fibers, interferometry, ellipsometry, spectroscopy (fluorescence, Raman) and discussion of biosensors properties based on these phenomena. Examples of existing sensors for the medical applications.
b. Optical properties of tissue: propagation models in tissue, scattering, absorption, change of polarization, structure of the eye and its optical properties, introduction to eye optics and vision. Interaction of lasers-tissue and lasers applications in surgery, wound healing, hair and tattoo removal, dental treatment, and vision correction. Blood oximetry will be discussed in detail as well as the search for non-invasive glucose monitoring device, bilirubin level monitoring in blood.
c. Medical optical imaging methods: Optical microscopy (standard, dark field, dark field, polarized, confocal, fluorescence, interferometric), optical coherence tomography (OCT), photo-acoustic tomography, Doppler tomography, polarimetric and spectral imaging. Examples for cancer diagnosis with optical imaging methods, modern optical microscopy techniques exhibiting superresolution.
d. Biomedical optical devices: Oxymeters, optical glucometers, lasers in surgery, laser Doppler, cosmetics, hair and tattoo removal, classical ophthalmic instruments such as slit lamp, fundus camera, tychometer, eye aberration measurement devices, eye laser corrections, OCT.
GlossarySee Abstract
Learning OutcomesTeach the students the optical properties of biomaterials such as absorption, scattering, dispersion and polarization effects.
Teach the students principles of optical biosensors for analytes detection in the environment and for biomedical applications.
Teach optical imaging techniques applied to biomedical applications such as OCT, photoacoustic imaging and other optical microscopy modes.
Teach the students the principles of specific biomedical optical devices being used in the clinics or heavy research on the way to clinic.
Bibliography1 Biomedical Optics: principles and imaging, Lihong V. Wang and Hsin-I Wu, Wiley 2007.
2 Laser - Tissue Interactions, Fundamentals and Applications, M. Niemz, Springer 1996.
3 Biomedical Photonics Handbook, Ed. Tuan Vo-Dinh, SPIE press, Vol. PM125.
4 Handbook of Optical Biomedical Diagnostics, Ed. Valery V. Tuchin, SPIE press 2002.
5 Lasers in Medicine, R.W. Waynant (ed.), CRC press 2002.
6 Optical Biosensors, Frances S. Ligler, Chris A. Rowe Taitt, Gulf publishing, 2002.
7 Optics of the Human Eye, by David Atchison, and G. Smith, Butterworth Heinemann · Published February 2000.
External Evaluator 1 Prof. Valery Tuchin, Saratov State University, tuchin@sgu.ru
2 Prof. Dvir Yelin, Biomedical Engineering, Technion, yelin@bm.technion.ac.il
3 Prof. Israel Gannot, Biomedical Engineering, TAU, gannot@eng.tau.ac.il
Responsible AcademicProf. Ibrahim Abdulhalim, Electrooptic and Photonics Engineering Unit, BGU
abdulhlm@bgu.ac.il
Awarded ECTS5
Module TitlePrinciples of Nano – Photonic & Plasmonic Devices
Abstract Nano-Optics deals with the interaction of light and matter at the nanoscale. Applications span from nano-optical instrumentation (i.e., confocal microscopy, near-field microscopy) and nano-optical devices (i.e., nano-lasers, optical nano-waveguides) to a full range of basic research topics on nanometer sized structures.
In this course, topics such as the fundamentals of light-matter interaction at the nanoscale, plasmonic propagation, nanowaveguides and nanolasers will be covered.
Glossary Lecture 1: Introduction to nanophotonics. Introduction to the simulation methods (Lumerical FDTD).
Lecture 2: Plasmonics
Tutorial 1: Plasmonics
Lecture 3: Photonic Crystals
Tutorial 3: Photonics crystals
Learning Outcomes To give students an introductory understanding and working knowledge of the light-matter interaction at the nanoscale, plasmonic propagation, nanowaveguides and nanolasers
BibliographySlides and scientific literature
External EvaluatorTo be announced
Responsible Academic Sonia Garcia Blanco (University of Twente)
Awarded ECTS 3.5
Module Title Principles of Non-Linear Imaging
Abstract Linear spectroscopy has enabled great discoveries but the contrast that is found in linear (visible) microscopy is not always optimal; Characteristic absorptions are often in the UV or IR. To reach these absorption lines multi-photon difference- or sum-frequencies can be used so that much more contrast is generated from similar input. Additionally the selection rules for multi-photon processes can provide contrast; centro-symmetric system do not support second or third harmonic generation which means that sites that break the symmetry (surfaces or small particles) can be revealed. Sum frequency can be done with two visible photons but also acoustic waves can be used. Non-resonant parametric processes tend to be phase–preserving, allowing for interferometric or heterodyne detection. All these aspects of nonlinear imaging as well as the choices for practical implementations will be discussed.
Glossary 1. Linear polarization, harmonic oscillator, refractive index and absorption
2. Nonlinear polarization, generation, phase matching
3. Selection rules, crystals, birefringent phase matching, periodic phase matching
4. Different orders of nonlinearity, SHG, THG, DFG, CARS, CSR, SBS, STED, NLSIM, NL_fluorescence.
5. Microscopy, linear imaging and types of nonlinear imaging
6. Spontaneous Raman, Stimulated Raman, phase aspects, bandwidth, focal/temporal engineering, Nonlinear background
7. CARS microscopy implementations, experimental aspects
8. Image processing, hyperspectral data, PCA, classification algorithms, end-members
9. Application examples, chemical imaging, biological/medical imaging
10. Quantum optics, squeezing, ghost imaging, single-photons.
Learning OutcomesTo give students an understanding of the mechanism that govern non-linear optical imaging and present an overview of possibilities offered by these techniques
Bibliography Slides and articles
External Evaluator To be announced
Responsible Academic Herman Offerhaus (University of Twente)
Awarded ECTS 3.5
Module TitleElectromagnetic Radiation and Optical Properties
AbstractThis module is about the way light interacts with matter. The wide-ranging optical properties observed in materials are classified and associated with the general phenomena of electromagnetic propagation, radiation and scattering, occurring while light propagates through, transmits, or is incident upon optical media. The module starts from the Maxwell’s equations, deals with the propagation, scattering and radiation of electromagnetic waves in various geometries and media, and presents optical properties of electronic, optical and advanced materials, giving insight to various optical applications.
Glossary Vector analysis and Maxwell’s equations. Fundamental field equations. Electric field and electric potential. Electrical properties of matter. Capacitance and electromagnetic energy. Dielectric materials. Methods of determining electric field and potential.
 Light. Wave equations and optical constants. Classical and quantum theory of light.
 Wave propagation and polarization. Reflection and transmission. Waves in inhomogeneous and layered media. Radiation and scattering equations.
 Radiation from apertures and beam waves. Dispersion and anisotropic media.
 Scattering of waves by conducting and dielectric objects.
 Waves in cylindrical structures, spheres, and wedges.
 Classical theory of light-matter interaction. Quantum theory of light-matter interaction.
 Electron-nuclei interaction. Optical spectra of materials. Light interactions with solids.
 Scattering by turbulence, particles, diffuse medium, and rough surfaces.
 Waves in metamaterials and plasmon. Nanomaterials.
 Optical properties of metals and non-metals. Luminescence. Thermal emission. Photo-conductivity.
 Optical applications. Solitons. Optical fibers. Lasers.
 Solid surface. Scanning tunneling microscopy. Atomic force microscopy. Electron microscopy in scanning and in transmission mode. Confocal microscopy.
 Tissue structure. Optical coherence tomography. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography.
Learning Outcomes Learning the ways light interact with matter.
 Familiarizing with electromagnetic wave theory.
 Understanding electromagnetic wave propagation, radiation and scattering.
 Dealing with the optical properties of materials (refraction, polarization, reflection, absorption, photoluminescence, transmittance, diffraction, dispersion, dichroism, scattering, birefringence, color, photosensitivity).
 Introductory understanding of electromagnetic and optical applications in electronics, telecommunications, and biomedicine.
Bibliography1. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, Radiation, and Scattering, by A. Ishimaru, Wiley-IEEE Press, 2017.
2. Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, by C.A. Balanis, Wiley, 2012.
3. Optical Properties of Solids: An Introductory Textbook, by K. Locharoenrat, CRC Press, 2016.
4. Optical Properties of Solids, by M. Fox, Oxford University Press, 2010.
5. Electronic, Magnetic, and Optical Materials, by P. Fulay and J.-K. Lee, CRC Press, 2016.
6. Optical Properties of Advanced Materials, by Y. Aoyagi and K. Kajikawa (Editors), Springer, 2013.
7. Optical Properties and Spectroscopy of Nanomaterials, by J.Z. Zhang, World Scientific, 2009.
8. Non-Linear Optical Properties of Matter – From Molecules to Condensed Phase, by M.G. Papadopoulos, A.J. Sadlej, and J. Leszczynski (Editors), Springer, 2006.
External EvaluatorTo be announced
Responsible AcademicAss. Prof. Ioannis Vardiambasis (TEI of Crete)
Awarded ECTS 5
Module Title Nanotechnlogies and Nanodevices
Abstract The course will expose the student to the world of nanotechnology and its principles, with special emphasis on nanophotonics. The course will describe the wide range of nano-materials, their chemical and physical properties and their application. The student will be exposed to a variety of imaging methods of nanostructures. The course will describe nano-devices that combine electrical activity, optical or biological and will reveal the principles behind them. The course will allow the students to be exposed to a multidisciplinary subject which includes all areas of sciences and advanced technological applications.
Glossary 1. Introduction to Nanotechnology: History, inspiration, purpose, meaning nanoscale size.
2. Nanotechnology principles: Top-down method compared to the bottom-up technique, self-assembly (SAM), expression properties that are not manifested at the macro scale, the effect of surface volume ratio.
3. Effect of particles sizes on properties of nanomaterials: Thermal properties, electrical properties, lattice constant, phase transformation, optical properties
4. Nano-materials and Nano structures: Classification of nano-materials, chemical structures, physical properties and manufacturing. Quantum dots, inorganic nanoparticles, organic nanoparticles and biomaterials. Nano-structures: nanowires and nano-pores.
5. Nanolithography and nanoprinting: Optic Nanolithography, e-beam lithography, Imprint nanolithography, Contact lithography, Soft lithography, Printing by Atomic Force Microscope, Molecular printing and Magnetic lithography.

6. Nano Imaging: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM&STEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM).

7. Nano electronic and Nano photonic: Molecular electronic and nanoelectronic devices, applying of nanomaterials in solar cell, producing transparence and flexible chips by organic-conductive devices, applying nanomaterials for fuel cell.
8. Characterization of Nanomaterials: X-ray diffraction (XRD), Piezo Force Microscopy (PFM), Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM).
9. Introduction of bio-nanotechnology: Bio and chemo nano-sensors based of range of responses: electric, optic and piezoelectric, Bio-fuel cell, Biochips, Lab on a chip (LOC), Bio-M/NEMS, Conductive nanostructure producing by biomaterials, bio-switch.
Learning Outcomes See Abstract
BibliographyGeoffrey A. Ozin, Andre C. Arsenault and Ludovico Cademartiri, Nanochemistry (Royal Society of Chemistry , Cambridge UK, 2009) .
2. Korkin Anatoli and Rosei Federico, Nanoelectronics and photonics: from atoms to materials (New York, Springer, 2008).
3. Christof M. Niemeyer and Chad A. Mirkin, Nanobiotechnology: concepts, applications and perspectives (Wiley-VCH, 2004).
4. Cao G., Wang Y., Nanostructures and Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications (2nd Edition, World Scientific Publisher Co., Singapore, 2011)
External Evaluator Prof. Alla Zak, Faculty of Engineering, HIT Holon Institute of Technology, Holon, Israel alzak@hit.ac.il

2. Prof. Guozhong Cao, University of Washington, 302M Roberts Hall, Box 352120, Seattle, Washington USA 98195-2120.
gzcao@ u.washington.edu
Responsible Academic Dr. Amir Handelman, Faculty of Engineering,
HIT Holon Institute of Technology, Holon, Israel
handelmana@hit.ac.il
(in collaboration with Dr Amos Bardea)
Awarded ECTS 5
Module TitleFundamentals of Laser Pulses
Abstract This module will present (a) the fundamentals of generation of laser pulses; (b) the techniques to pulse shorten and measure laser pulse duration; and (c) the of pulsed laser devices as well as their applications. The module will start with the most famous techniques of laser pulses generation: Q-Switching and Mode Locking. Pulse shortening techniques will follow. Continuously measurement methodologies using the Kerr Effect, Prisms, DBR Mirrors and Interferometry will be presented.
The final part will contain various pulsed laser systems we use in nanotechnology laboratories. Closing a number of applications of pulsed laser devices will be presented on areas like telemetry, communications, spectroscopy, medicine, digital media (CD, DVD).
Glossary 1. Fundamentals of laser pulse: the propagation of laser pulses in dispersive media
2. Fundamentals of Q-Switching Technique: Physics, Passive & Active Q- Switching
3. Fundamentals of Mode-Locking Technique: Physics, Passive & Active Mode Locking
4. Chirped – pulse amplification (CPA)
5. Pulse Shortening Techniques: Self Phase Modulation, Using the Group Velocity Dispersion, Pulse Compression with Gratings, Prisms and DBR Mirrors
6. Measuring Laser Pulses using the Optical Kerr Effect
7. Measuring Laser Pulses using Two – Photon Ionization Mass Spectroscopy
8. Measuring Laser Pulses using Interferometry
9. Pulsed Laser Systems: Semiconductors, Solid State Lasers, Gas Lasers, Optical Parametric Oscillators & Amplifiers
10. Telemetry, communications, spectroscopy, medicine, digital media (CD, DVD), etc.
Learning Outcomes Learning Fundamentals of Laser Pulses and Laser Pulse Laser Shaping & Measurement
- Learning about applications and basics on relative devices on Pulsed Laser Systems
Bibliography1. Laser Fundamentals by W.T. Silfvast, Cambridge University Press
2. Video recording technology, Arch C. Luther, Boston : Artech House.
3. Principles of Lasers, O. Svelto
4. Laser Engineering, Kelin J. Kuhn, University of Washington
5. Applied laser spectroscopy: techniques instrumentation and applications, New York : VCH
6. Laser ultrasonics: techniques and applications, Scruby C.B., New York: Taylor and Francis
7. Handbook of fiber optic data communication, San Diego: Academic Press
8. Technical manuals and Datasheet.
External Evaluator To be announced
Responsible AcademicDr Stelios Kouridakis (TEI of Crete)
Awarded ECTS 5
Module Title Optical Engineering Principles
Abstract The course will expose the student to the practical technical information on design of optical systems. The field of optical engineering is exponentially growing, with applications in autonomous vehicles, augmented reality (AR), cell-phone cameras, and more. The emphasis of the course is on common optical devices, used in various systems.
Glossary 1. Introduction to optical engineering: applications, geometric optics, wave optics.
2. Image formation with lenses: lenses, type of lenses, paraxial region, system of separated components.
3. Prisms and mirrors: reflection from a plane surface, right angle prism, roof prism, inversion prisms, penta prosm, beam splitter, the design of prism and reflector systems.
4. Stops and apertures: the apertures stop and pupils, the field stop, Vignetting, baffles, cold stops, depth of focus, resolution of optical systems.
5. Optical materials and interference coatings: optical glass, crystalline materials, absorption filters, neutral density filters, reflectors, reticles.

6. Polarization devices: polarizing materials, half- and quarter-wave plates, polarizers.

7. Basic optical instruments: telescope, microscope, anamorphic systems, variable zoom system.

8. Design of optical systems I: the symmetrical principle, achromatic telescope objectives, generalized design technique
9. Design of optical systems II: microscope objectives, condenser and reflecting systems, estimation of blur size.
Learning Outcomes See Abstract
Bibliography Smith W. J., Modern optical engineering, (3rd edition, McGraw-Hill, 2000)
2. Bahaa E. A. Saleh, Malvin Carl Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, (John Wiley & Sons, 1991)
External Evaluator Dr. Boris Apter, Faculty of Engineering, HIT Holon Institute of Technology, Holon, Israel apter@hit.ac.il

2. Prof. Zeev Zalevsky, Faculty of Engineering, Bar Ilan University, Israel
zalevsz at biu.ac.il
Responsible Academic Dr. Amir Handelman, Faculty of Engineering,
HIT Holon Institute of Technology, Holon, Israel
handelmana@hit.ac.il
Awarded ECTS 5
Module Title RF and Intergraded Protonic Principles
Abstract Microwave Photonics is a rapidly growing field that merges microwave and optical technologies to bring out the best of both worlds. This course covers a wide range of topics from: Introduction to microwave photonics, basic optical and RF components and various applications of microwave photonics. A comprehensive description of analog optical links from basic principles to applications is also a part of the course.
Glossary 1. Concepts of Microwave Photonic Devices.
2. Microwave Photonic Components: Laser Diodes, Mach Zehnder and Electroabsorption Modulators, Photodetector and Mixer, Electroabsorption Transceiver
3. Photonic Integration Technologies
4. Photonic Microwave Signal Processing: Photonic Microwave Phase Shifter, Time Delay Control, Photonic Ultrawide Band (UWB) Pulse Generation, beam forming
5. Broadband Fiber Optical Links
6. Microwave Photonic Systems
7. RF/MW over Fiber optical links: link budget analysis
Learning OutcomesSee Abstract
Bibliography1. Chi H. Lee, Microwave Photonics, Second Edition, CRC Press; 2 edition (March 21, 2013)

2. V.J. Urick , Keith J. Williams , Jason D. McKinney, Fundamentals of Microwave Photonics (Wiley Series in Microwave and Optical Engineering) 1st Edition, Wiley, March 2015
3. Stavros Iezekiel, Microwave Photonics: Devices and Applications, Wiley, April 2009
External Evaluator 1. Dr. Boris Lembrikov, Faculty of Engineering, HIT Holon Institute of Technolgy,
52 Golomb Street, Holon, Israel,
borisle@hit.ac.il
2. Prof. Avi Zadok, Faculty of Engineering, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel, Avinoam.Zadok@biu.ac.il
Responsible Academic Prof. Yosef Ben Ezra, Faculty of Engineering,
HIT Holon Institute of Technology, Holon, Israel
benezra@hit.ac.il
Awarded ECTS 5
Module Title Introduction to Nonlinear Optics
Abstract Nonlinear optics is the study of the response of dielectric media
to strong optical fields. The fields are sufficiently strong that the
response of the medium is, as its name implies, nonlinear. That
is, the polarization, which is the dipole moment per unit volume
in the medium, is not a linear function of the applied electrical
field. This module is on nonlinear optics at the level of a
beginning graduate student. The intent of the module is to
provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that
stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go
on to perform independent research in this field.
Glossary Chapter 1: The Nonlinear Optical Susceptibility
 Introduction to Nonlinear Optics
 Descriptions of Nonlinear Optical Processes
 Formal Definition of the Nonlinear Susceptibility
 Nonlinear Susceptibility of a Classical Anharmonic
Oscillator
 Properties of the Nonlinear Susceptibility
 Time-Domain Description of Optical Nonlinearities
 Kramers-Kronig Relations in Linear and Nonlinear Optics
Chapter 2: Wave-Equation Description of Nonlinear Optical
Interactions
 The Wave Equation for Nonlinear Optical Media
 The Coupled-Wave Equations for Sum-Frequency
Generation
 Phase Matching
 Quasi-Phase-Matching
 Nonlinear Optical Interactions with Focused Gaussian
Beams
Chapter 3: Quantum-Mechanical Theory of the Nonlinear
Optical Susceptibility
 Linear Response Theory
Chapter 4: The Intensity-Dependent Refractive Index
 Descriptions of the Intensity-Dependent Refractive Index
 Semiconductor Nonlinearities
 Concluding Remarks
Chapter 5: Processes Resulting from the Intensity-Dependent
Refractive Index
 Self-Focusing of Light and Other Self-Action Effects
 Optical Phase Conjugation
 Optical Bistability and Optical Switching
 Two-Beam Coupling
 Pulse Propagation and Temporal Solitons
Chapter 6: Spontaneous Light Scattering and Acoustooptics
 Features of Spontaneous Light Scattering
Chpter 7: Stimulated Brillouin and Stimulated Rayleigh
Scattering
 Stimulated Scattering Processes
Learning Outcomes 1. Understanding and knowledge in the field of nonlinear optics from the perspective of the nonlinear susceptibility.
2. Understanding and knowledge of propagation light waves
through nonlinear optical media by means of the optical
wave equation.
3. Understanding and knowledge of linear response theory.
4. Understanding and knowledge of nonlinear refractive
index.
5. Understanding and knowledge on spontaneous and
stimulated light scattering and on the related topic of
acoustooptics.
Bibliography 1. Nonlinear Optics, third edition, Robert W. Boyd,
Elsevier,2008
2. The Principles of Nonlinear Optics, Shen, Wiley & Sons
2003
3. The Quantum Theory of Nonlinear Optics, P. D.
Drummond & M. Hillery, Cambridge 2014
4. Nonlinear Optical Systems, L. Lugiato, F. Prati & M.
Brambilla, Cambridge 2015
External Evaluator To be announced
Responsible Academic Dr. Irit Juwiler (SCE), email: iritj@sce.ac.il
Awarded ECTS 5
Module Title Fundamental of Optoelectronics
Abstract This module will present the basic physics and design engineering of guided wave optical devices with reference to Maxwell’s equations. The module will involve math and physics to provide practical design formula and it will include numerical examples. After the mathematical background section, the module will deal with optical waveguides and the relevant phenomenon occurring in the waveguides, such as dispersion, attenuation and nonlinear effects, and coupling between the optical sources to the waveguides. The next section will handle noise in optical detectors and optical sources. Among the devices that will be included in the course: optical detectors, semiconductor lasers, fiber-optic sensors, and waveguide modulators. The module aimed at showing the student how to design or simulate real devices.
Glossary Part 1 Fundamentals
1. The Fundamental Tools of Optoelectronics: Maxwell's Equations
Part 2 The Optical Wire
2 The Planar Slab Waveguide
3. Dispersion in Waveguides
4. Graded-Index Waveguides
5. Step-Index Circular Waveguides
6. Dispersion and Graded-Index Fibers
7. Attenuation and nonlinear Effects in Waveguides
8. Rectangular Dielectric Waveguides
Part 3 Coupling and Numeric Analysis
9. The Beam Propagation Method
10. Coupled Mode Theory and Application
11. Coupling between Optical Sources and Waveguides
Part 4 Noise and Detection
12. Noise in Optical Detectors
13. Optical Detectors
Part 5 Optical Sources
14. Optical Radiation and Amplifications
15. Optical Amplifiers and Lasers
16. Semiconductor Lasers
Part 6 Optical Devices
17. Waveguide Modulators
18. Fiber-Optic Sensors
Part 7 Polarization & Modulation of Light
19. State of Polarization & Maulus Law
20. Light Propagation in an Anisotropic Medium: Birefringence
21. Half and Quarter Wave Plates
22. Optical Activity and Circular Birefringence
23. Electro - Optic Effect
24. Acousto-Optic Modulator
25. Magneto-Optic Effects
26. Non Linera Optics and Second Harmonic Oscillators
Learning Outcomes1. Design an optical detector.
2. Explain the operating mechanism of a semiconductor laser.
3. Simulate an optical waveguide.
4. Calculate SNR at the optical detector.
5. Explain Polarization and Modulation of Light
6. Explain how optical modulator works.
Bibliography Book Title: Fundamentals of Optoelectronics
Clifford R. Pollock

Dr. Alina Karabchevsky, email: rudenkoal@gmail.com
http://www.alinakarabchevsky.com
External Evaluator Dr. Alina Karabchevsky, email: rudenkoal@gmail.com
http://www.alinakarabchevsky.com
Responsible Academic Dr Moshe Zohar
email: moshezo@ac.sce.ac.il,
https://en.sce.ac.il/faculty/moshe

Dr Kostantinos Petridis (TEI of Crete)
Email:c.petridischania@gmail.com
https://www.teicrete.gr/ee/el/πετρίδης-κωνσταντίνος
Awarded ECTS 5
Module TitleAn Introduction to Quantum Optics
Abstract This course aims to provide the fundamental tools and concepts of quantum optics – the field that deals with the quantum description of light. Starting from the concept of the photon, the quantization of the electromagnetic fields, non classical states of light, quantum entanglement and finally the description of quantum light-matter interactions.
Glossary1. Brief overview of prerequisite subjects: Fourier, optical modes
2. From Maxwell equations to the uantization of the electromagnetic field
3. Fock states, coherent states, squeezed states
4. Distribution functions in quantum optics, homodyne
5. Coherence and 2nd order correlation functions, Hanbury-Brown and Twiss
6. Quantum entanglement and Bell inequalities
7. Parametric down-conversion and entangled photons
8. Brief overview of applications of quantum entanglement: Quantum Key Distribution and Quantum Computing.
9. Light-Matter interactions: Jaynes-Cummings model, Mollow spectrum, Dressed States
10. Cavity-QED in the Strong Coupling and Fast Cavity Regimes, photon-atom gates
11. Brief overview of open quantum systems and cascaded systems formalism
Learning Outcomes 1. Use the fundamental concepts and analytic description of quantized light - from classical light (coherent states) to non classical light such as single photons, entangled photons and squeezed vacuum. Understand and be able to use the concepts of coherence, 2nd order coherence, and multi-photon interference.
2. Understand and be able to quantify entangled states of light and matter, and be familiar the most common non-classicality tests such as anti-bunching, Bell inequality, etc.
3. Demonstrate familiarity with the fundamental concepts and analytic description of light-matter interactions.

External Evaluator Prof. Ilya Averbuch (WIS)
Responsible Academic Prof. Barak Dayan (WIS)
Awarded ECTS 5
Module Title Silicon Photonics
Abstract Integrated nano-electronic circuits in silicon represent the most striking combination of scientific breakthroughs, technological sophistication and the economics of scale. In recent years, nano-photonic circuits for the manipulation of light in the same material platform follow a similar trend. The main force that drives the advance of integrated photonic circuits is short-reach optical communication among processors and memory elements at the data center. While optical communication was initially developed as a long-haul solution, it is required nowadays at the rack, board and even chip levels. The need for close integration between optical communication functions and electronic logic and memory is calling for silicon photonics. This exciting field of research and development is growing rapidly. Furthermore, silicon photonics is not restricted to data communications only: concepts and building blocks are directly applicable to other major fields of interest such as sensors and laser radars.
The main part of the course focuses on the physical principles and basic building blocks that are underlying the processing of light in silicon-photonic integrated circuits. These include guiding of light in various types of waveguides, splitting and combining of waveforms in couplers, spectral filtering in Mach-Zehnder interferometers and ring resonators, modulation through free-carrier effects, linear and nonlinear losses, all-optical amplification through Raman scattering, and introduction of opto-mechanical effects in suspended structures. Integration with additional material platforms such as germanium and indium-phosphide towards the realization of light sources, electrically-pumped amplifiers and short-wave infra-red detectors is addressed as well. Examples of cutting-edge device applications are presented and analyzed. Lastly, a brief introduction to main fabrication steps is given at the end of the course.
Glossary 1: Introduction: Motivation for silicon photonics. Silicon as an optical medium. Absorption spectrum of silicon. The silicon-on-insulator material platform
2,3: Guiding of light in silicon photonics: Analytic solutions for symmetric and asymmetric 1D slab waveguides. TE vs. TM modes. The cut-off conditions. Multi-mode vs. Single-mode waveguides. Modal, chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion. Approximate solutions for 2D waveguides. Ridge vs. rib geometries. Propagation losses due to bending and roughness
4,5: Couplers in silicon photonics: Directional couplers. The calculation of coupling coefficient. Transfer matrices. Multi-mode interference couplers. Example: vertical grating couplers for input/output interfaces
6,7: Filters: The analogy between digital and optical filters. Zeros and poles Finite and infinite impulse response filters. The Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The ring resonator. Cascading multiple stages. Arrayed waveguide gratings. Methods for post-fabrication trimming. Example: 8-channel wavelength-division multiplexing
8,9: Nonlinear propagation effects: The nonlinear refractive index. Two-photon absorption and associated limitations. Stimulated Raman scattering. Opto-mechanical interactions. Example: Raman laser in silicon
10: Electro-optic modulators: Absence of Pockels effect in silicon. Free-carrier effects, changes in index and absorption. P-N junctions across silicon waveguides. Mach-Zehnder and resonator-based modulators. Plasmonic modulators. Example: a modulator device
11: Heterogeneous materials integration: Indirect bandgap of silicon. Lack of efficient stimulated emission. Bonding of indium-phosphide-based active layers. Hybrid devices. Germanium-based photo-diodes. Example: a hybrid silicon-indium-phosphide laser diode.
12: Introduction to fabrication of devices. Optical lithography. Electron-beam lithography. Reactive ion etching. Deposition of metals. Implantation of ions.
13: Introduction to test and measurement setups. Measurement of transfer function. Transfer of data.
Learning Outcomes 1) Understanding the opportunities and challenges of silicon photonics.
2) Analysis, simulation and design of waveguide, couplers and filters in silicon photonics.
3) Understanding the physical mechanism being used in active photonic devices over silicon, difficulties, solution paths and limitations.
4) Knowledge of the state of the art in silicon photonics
5) Basic acquaintance with fabrication, test and measurement.
Bibliography 1) A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics, 6th Edition, Oxford University Press, 2007.
2) Silicon Photonics, Editors: L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood. Springer, 2004.
3) Silicon Photonics: the state of the art. Editor: G. T. Reed. Wiley, 2008.
External Evaluator 1) Prof. Uriel Levy, Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Israel.
2) Prof. Jacob Scheuer, Tel-Aviv Univ, Israel.
3) Prof. Thomas Schneider, Technical Univ. of Braunschweig, Germany.
Responsible Academic Prof.Prof. Avi Zadok Avi Zadok
Awarded ECTS 5

 

Technical Modules

Module TitleFTIR, UV - VIS Spectroscopy
AbstractIntroduction to spectroscopy by IR (vibrational/ rotational) and UV-vis (electronic) spectroscopy, including theory and lab demonstrations
Glossary
Learning ObjectivesThe student will utilize FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy for the characterization of molecules and other materials
Bibliography1. Atkins, de Paula, Physical Chemistry, 8th ed., ch. 13-14.
2. Silbey, Alberty, Bawendi, Physical Chemistry, 4th ed., ch. 13-14.
External EvaluatorDr. Sharly Fleischer, School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University
Responsible Academic Dr. Iris Visoly-Fisher (Solar energy, BIDR), Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Awarded ECTS3
Module TitlePhotonic Sintering and Structuring & Lab Demo
AbstractBasics and manufacturing technology procedures where laser as a main tool is used will be described and summarized in this module. Physical principles of the photon interaction with semiconductors and metals as well as technical aspects of laser heated crystal growth and purification with a small floating zone will be presented in details.
Physical and technical aspects of the laser utilization in a 3D printing and additive manufacturing technology will be considered and explained. Principles and possibilities of complex object creation in submicron size by the layer-by-layer melting and by the two-photon polymerization will be presented and discussed. The traditional and modern skills on photonic sintering and structuring in Si electronic technology will be taught. Finally, the surface structuring of silicon solar cells and structuring of thin films in the organic photovoltaic technology, including structuring with ultra-short pulse lasers, will be provided in the course as well as presented in videos and treated during the practical course in the labs.
GlossaryChapter one
Historical review of photonic sintering and structuring. Application of structuring in solar cells. Special lasers and their characteristics. Physical principles of the photon interaction with semiconductors and metals. Set-ups and their components.
Chapter two
Laser heated crystal growth and purification of materials with a miniature floating zone. Advantages and fields of application. Laser-heated floating zone production of single-crystal fibers. Nucleation and crystal growth in laser patterned lines in glasses.
Chapter three
Laser in additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. Selective laser sintering (polymer in use). Two-photon polymerization (TPP) as a manufacturing technique for realization of micro-structured materials and creating complex objects in submicron size. Selective laser melting (metals in use) layer-by-layer approach. New design possibilities of this technique.
Chapter four
Laser beam selective doping in Si electronic technology. Doping sources and variations of the profiles. Penetration depth and process adapted temporal irradiation profiles. Laser soldering and laser welding of solar modules with strongly localized energy deposition. Traditional and new temperature control methods for the real-time soldering.
Chapter five
Laser as a manufacturing tool in the photovoltaics. Surface structuring of silicon solar cells for better light coupling. Micro-scale structuring of the surface. Creation of photonic structures. Structuring of thin films with ultra-short pulse lasers. Techniques and physical processes. Structuring of transparent conductive layers for organic electronics.
Learning OutcomesThe students will collect expertize in basic and technical aspects of photonic sintering of materials in submicro- and photonic structuring of photovoltaic devices in submicro- and nano-scale.
Bibliography[1] Andreeta, M.R.B.; Hernandes, A.C. (2010). "Laser-Heated Pedestal Growth of Oxide Fibers". In Dhanaraj, G.; Byrappa, K.; Prasad, V.; Dudley, M. Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth. p. 393. ISBN 978-3-540-74182-4.
[2] Schmidt M., Gausemeier J., Leyens C., Anderl R., Winzer P., Schmid HJ., Seliger G., Straube F., Kohlhuber M., Kage M., Karg M.:
Additive Manufacturing (2017), S. 1-60, URL: http://www.acatech.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Baumstruktur_nach_Website/Acatech/root/de/Publikationen/Kooperationspublikationen/3Akad_Stellungnahme_EN_AdditiveFertigung_web_FINAL.pdf
[3] New strategy for local diffusion of dopants in crystalline silicon. Easy integration into silicon solar cells production lines
See more technologies at www.upc.edu/patents/TO UPC - BarcelonaTech.
[4] Peter Kubis. Design and Development of Ultra-fast Laser Patterning Processes for the Production of Organic Photovoltaic Modules with High Geometric Fill Factor. PhD- Thesis, University of Erlangen, 2014, urn:nbn:de:bvb:29-opus4-54832.
[5] Additional bibliography will be provided in each lecture of the course.
External Evaluator To be Announced
Responsible AcademicsProf. Christoph J. Brabec

Dr. Andres Osvet
Awarded ECTS2.5
Module TitleRaman Spectroscopy Fundamentals
Abstract Raman spectroscopy provides vibrational, rotational and low frequency modes detection and is a very useful tool to investigate a molecule’s internal structure. In this context, this course is designed to cover the theoretical background of the Raman spectroscopy and to discuss a variety of example applications, through tutorial exercises and laboratory practice, complemented by lectures. More specifically, students will be taught Raman spectroscopy basic theory, principles and instrumentation, as well as to collect and interpret spectral data, covering a long range of samples/applications, through mapping and imaging video demonstration, in order potential users to be educated in obtaining and interpreting optimal high-quality spectral data, carried out on a Raman spectrometer.
Glossary • Historical introduction of the Raman spectroscopy
• Theory of Raman spectroscopy on molecules and crystals
• Raman basic theory brief review
• Raman spectroscopy option
• Parameters selection and comparison to IR spectroscopy
• Raman instrumentation (dispersive and FT)
• Practical laboratory courses on Raman spectroscopy
• Applications (carbon-based materials, polymers, pigments, nanoparticles etc.)
• Spectral interpretation
• Library searches
• Mapping and Imaging (video demonstration)
Learning OutcomesStudents will learn or/and improve their ability to apply Raman spectroscopy to their samples, to interpret the respective spectral data in order to expand the scope of their applications.
Bibliography1. Wang, L.; Mizaikoff, B.; Kranz, C. "Quantification of Sugar Mixtures with Near-infrared Raman Spectroscopy and Multivariate Data Analysis A Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Experiment" J. Chem. Ed. 2009, 86, 1322.
2. Vickers, T.J.; Pecha, J.; Mann, C.K. "Raman spectroscopy with a fiber-optic probe and multichannel detection" J. Chem. Ed. 2001, 78, 1674.
3. Long, D.A., Raman Spectroscopy, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1977.
4. Harris, D. C.; Bertolucci, M. D.; Symmetry and Spectroscopy: an introduction to vibrational and electronic spectroscopy, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1989.
5. Szymanski, H. A., Raman Spectroscopy: Theory and Practice, Plenum Press, New York, 1967.
6. McCreery, R. L., Raman Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2000.
External Evaluator Prof. Xaniotakis (University of Crete)
Responsible Academic Dr Minas Stylianakis (TEI of Crete)
Awarded ECTS 3
Module TitleLaser Safety
Abstract This course thoroughly addresses the potential hazards when laser sources are used, while providing important safety instructions for maintaining the highest standards of safety within lab working environments at which laser beams are operated.
Glossary Types of laser sources, potential laser beam hazards, safety precautions
Learning OutcomesKnowledge on different laser types and safety procedures.
BibliographyP. Samartzis, Laboratory safety notes, IESL-FORTH
External Evaluator To be announced
Responsible Academic Dr. Petros Samartzis (IESL-FORTH)
Awarded ECTS 2
Module Title Laser Optics and Instrumentation
Abstract This module will present the optical components and instrumentation required for the development of laser associated experiments. The module will start with the basic optical tools and light manipulation optics-filters, their working principle and the material choice will be provided. Basic principles of waveplates and retarders for polarization control will be envisaged along with non linear media and common methods for acquiring the spatial and temporal characteristics of a laser beam. The students will be familiar with the following instrumentation: Oscilloscope, mechanical shutter, spectrometers, photo-diodes.
Glossary Lesson 1: Presentation of basic optical tools for light manipulation.
Lesson 2: Principles of laser beam polarization control.
Lesson 3: Non-linear optical media.
Lesson 4: Spatial and temporal characteristics of laser beams.
Lesson 5: Examples of laser-assisted experiments.
Learning Outcomes Understanding the operation of optical components.
Knowledge on laser beam polarization characteristics and temporal properties.
Knowledge on setting up laser associated experiments.
BibliographyS. Nagabhushana and N. Sathyanarayana, Lasers and optical instrumentations, I.K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. (2010).
External Evaluator To be announced
Responsible Academic Evangelos Skoulas and Andreas Lemonis (IESL - FORTH)
Awarded ECTS3
Module TitleVideo Experiment Demos
Abstract This module includes videos of laser-assisted fabrication, microscopy, and processing experiments. Namely, the first video presents the development of perovskite absorber films for photovoltaic applications, by means of laser irradiation, whereas the second video demonstrates the laser-processing of metal and glassy materials. In addition, the formation of metal and perovskite nano-particles by means of laser irradiation procedures is video filmed and presented. Finally, another video illustrates the study of non-linear optical properties of various photonic materials by means of laser-scanning imaging microscopy.
GlossaryVideo 1: Laser-assisted crystallization of perovskite films.
Video 2: Laser-processing of metals and inorganic oxide glasses.
Video 3: Laser-scanning imaging microscopy of photonic materials.
Video 4: Formation of metal and perovskite nano-particles by means of laser irradiation.
Learning OutcomesDemonstrating the importance of laser-assisted processing and fabrication techniques.
Bibliography[1] E. Skoulas et al., Biomimetic surface structuring using cylindrical vector femtosecond laser beams, Sci. Rep. 7, 45114 (2017).
[2] M. Sygletou et al., Advanced photonic processes for photovoltaic and energy storage systems, Adv. Mater. 29, 1700335 (2017).
[3] I. Konidakis et al., Effect of composition and temperature on the second harmonic generation in silver phosphate glasses, Opt. Mater. 75, 796 (2018).
[4] Ultrafast Laser Micro- and Nano-processing Group (IESL) web page:
http://www.iesl.forth.gr/research/activity.aspx?id=29
External Evaluator To be announced
Responsible Academic Dr Ioannis Konidakis (IESL-FORTH)
Awarded ECTS 2
Module Title Optical Characterization of Solar Cells
Abstract Optical properties of the materials, as well as processing methods used for solar cells fabrication are directly related to the overall devices performance. To this end, this course deals with the basic optical and spectroscopic characterization methods, techniques and equipment, which are widely used in the diagnostics of materials and thin film structures towards advanced optical characterization of integrated solar cell devices. Through tutorial exercises, video demonstrations, journal paper reviews and complementary lectures, the course strives to provide all accurate and timely optical characterization techniques required for solar cells evaluation and the optimization of fabrication processing. In this way, students will learn to troubleshoot problems by developing their knowledge base regarding the device fabrication cost, performance and manufacturability.
Glossary • Introduction to optical characterization techniques
• Optical properties of semiconductors, dielectrics and metals
• Thin films optical characterization
• Optical interactions at interfaces: reflection/refraction/scattering
• Basic geometrical optics and ray-tracing
• Light management in thin-film solar cells
• Advanced optical characterization of integrated solar cell devices
Learning Outcomes  Optical design and optical material properties description and evaluation in a range of solar energy applications
 Optical properties identification and investigation of components in solar cells
 Critical evaluation of recent articles in the literature
Bibliography1. Nelson Jenny, The Physics of Solar Cells, Imperial Collage Press, 2003.
2. https://www.nrel.gov/pv/electro-optical-characterization.html.
3. Yu, P., and M. Cardona. Fundamentals of Semiconductors: Physics and Materials Properties. 3rd ed. Springer, 2004.
4. Poortmans, J., and V. Arkhipov. Thin Film Solar Cells: Fabrication, Characterization and Applications. 1st ed. Wiley-Blackwell, 2006.
External Evaluator Dr. Derya Baran (King Abdullah University – KAUST)
Responsible Academic Dr Minas Stylianakis (TEI of Crete)
Awarded ECTS 2.5
Module TitlePrinciples of SEM & TEM Imagine Techniques & Lab Demo
Abstract The continuous emergence of electron optics, detectors, and other fields of science has opened an entirely new class of experiments in materials characterization. The objective of this module is to highlight the importance of electron microscopes in materials science, and provide a global understanding the existing techniques, limitations and actual progress in this field.
Glossary Chapter 1
Basics of Electron Microscopy
Chapter 2
Scanning Electron Microscopy & STEM
Chapter 3
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Chapter 4
Extensions of SEM, STEM and TEM
Chapter 5
Advanced & Future Applications of SEM, TEM and STEM
Learning Outcomes The students will have an overview of the basic and experimental possibilities of SEM, STEM and TEM techniques, especially in connection with synthesis and investigation of nanomaterials.
Bibliography1. Williams D.B., Carter C.B. Transmission electron microscopy: a textbook for materials science, 2nd editon. Springer 2009.
[2] Pennycook S.J., Nellist P.D. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy: Imaging and Analysis. Springer 2011.
[3] Echlin P. Handbook of Sample Preparation for Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis. Springer 2011.
[4] Egerton R.F. Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in Electron Microscope, 3rd edition. Springer 2011.
[5] Yamamoto N. Cathodoluminescence. Intech 2012. (Open source).
[6] Goldstein J. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, 4th edition. Springer 2018.
[7] Zewail A.H., Thomas J.M. 4D Electron Microscopy: Imaging in Space and Time. Imperial College Press 2010.
[8] Reimer L. Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation and Image Analysis, 4th edition. Springer 2013.
[9] Zou X., Hovmöller S., Oleynikov P. Electron Crystallography: Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction. International Union of Crystallography. Oxford University Press 2012.
External Evaluator To be Announced
Responsible Academic Prof. Dr. Christoph J. Brabec and M. Sc. Jack Elia (both FAU - University of Erlangen-Nürnberg)
Awarded ECTS 2
Module Title Time Resolved Spectroscopy
Abstract In this course we will introduce the fundamentals of time resolved spectroscopy, discussing briefly pulse generation techniques and ultrashort optical pulses properties, the light matter interaction relevant to ultrafast processes and the phenomena occurring following ultrafast excitation in molecules and solids. Finally, an outlook on new emerging techniques will be presented
Glossary 1) Techniques for ultrashort pulse generation

2) Ultrashort light pulses properties and characterization

3) The pump probe technique

4) Non linear third order response and the effective linear approximation

5) Time resolved photoluminescence

6) Photoexcitation scenario in molecules

7) Photoexcitation scenario in semiconductors

8) Time dependent light matter interaction: vibrational coherence

9) Multi pulses techniques
Learning Outcomes To give students a background in dynamics in materials, and an introduction on experimental techniques to study it.
Bibliography
External Evaluator Prof. Cesare Soci (NTU Singapore)
Responsible Academic Prof. Guglielmo Lanzani (POLIMI)
Award ECTS 2
Module TitlePrinciples of X-ray Techniques & Lab Demo
Abstract The objective of this course is to highlight the fundamentals and applications of X-rays in different fields of science and technology. Historical and practical aspects of X-rays will be introduced in this course. This module will discuss 4 main parts of X-rays applications: Diffraction, Scattering, Imaging and Spectroscopy. Each part will provide a historical overview, highlight the existing techniques, softwares, databases and the recent advances in the field.
Glossary Chapter 1
Basics of
X-ray and applications
Chapter 2
X-ray Diffraction and applications
Chapter 3
X-ray Scattering and applications
Chapter 4
X-ray imaging and applications
Chapter 5
X-ray Spectroscopy and applications
Learning OutcomesThe students will have an overview of the basic and experimental and technical possibilities of X-ray techniques, and the connection with Material science and biological/medical applications.
Bibliography [01] Guinebretière R. X-ray Diffraction by Polycrystalline Materials. John Wiley & Sons 2013.
[02] Sharma S. K. X-ray Spectroscopy. Intech 2012.
[03] Ares A. E. X-ray Scattering. Intech 2017.
[04] Sharma S. K. X-ray Spectroscopy. Intech 2012.
[05] Chandrasekaran A. Current Trends in X-Ray Crystallography. Intech 2011.
[06] Benedict J. B. Recent Advances in Crystallography. Intech 2012.
[07] Khodaei M. X-ray Characterization of Nanostructured Energy Materials by Synchrotron Radiation. Intech 2017.
[08] Subburaj K. CT Scanning. Intech 2011.
[09] Franco M. Small Angle Scattering and Diffraction. Intech 2018.
[10] Zschornack G. Handbook of X-ray Data. Intech 2007.
[11] Tsuji K, Injuk J, Van Grieken R. X-Ray Spectrometry: Recent Technological Advances. John Wiley & Sons 2004.
[12] Poulsen H. F. Three-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy. Springer 2004.
[13] Waseda Y. Anomalous X-ray scattering for materials characterization: atomic-scale structure determination. Springer; 2003
External Evaluator Is still to be determined
Responsible AcademicPD Dr. Miroslaw Batentschuk and M. Sc. Jack Elia (both FAU - University of Erlangen-Nürnberg)
Awarded ECTS2.5

 

iPEN Soft Skills Modules

Module TitleSoft/Transferable Laboratory Skills
AbstractThe course will include learning and exercising techniques towards improving the student's skills as a scientist, including project management, human relations, time management and presentation skills. The course will improve the student's collaborative work in academic and industrial environments, and will help the student efficiently achieve his/ her professional goals. The course topics cover the non-scientific skills required for future success in a scientific career.
Glossary
Learning OutcomesThe students will utilize techniques and theories for improving his/ her presentation, management and team work skills in scientific-technological research
BibliographyMaking the Right Moves: A Practical Guide to Scientifıc Management for Postdocs and New Faculty, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Burroughs Wellcome Fund, https://www.hhmi.org/developing-scientists/making-right-moves
External evaluator Prof. Maya Schuldiner, Weizmann Institute of Science
Responsible Academics Prof. Raz Zarivach (Life sciences) (Ben Gurion University)

Dr. Iris Visoly-Fisher (Solar energy, BIDR) (Ben Gurion University)
Module TitleHow to Develop Oral Presentation Skills
Abstract Oral presentation skills are part of the soft skills set of modules which is aimed towards candidates who want to carry out academic work in English. The training approach is modular to recognise the fact that not all candidates are required to develop all the skills to the same level.
Candidates are expected to handle language commonly used over the normal range of academic matters with which a university department may be required to deal.
Glossary1.Oral presentations
1.1 Before the presentation
1.2 During the presentation
1.3 Task: You will have to deliver a a 5 minutes presentation. You can deliver your presentation on Skype, during a 10 minutes conversation with an academic tutor, OR online, by submitting a recording (audio or video) of your presentation on the Learning Management System of the project.
Learning OutcomesCandidates are expected to demonstrate that they are effective communicators and accepted as such by native speakers with whom they are likely to come into contact. The delivery mode will be online. Content will be made available on the Learning Management System of the iPEN project and a speaking exercise will be carried out with a professional tutor online.
BibliographyFerris, D., & Tagg, T. (1996). Academic listening/speaking tasks for ESL students: Problems, suggestions, and implications. Tesol Quarterly, 30(2), 297-320.
Collier, V. P. (1989). How long? A synthesis of research on academic achievement in a second language. TESOL quarterly, 23(3), 509-531.
External evaluatorTo be announced
Responsible AcademicTatiana Codreanu, Ph.D. (W2L)
Module Title How to develop scientific writing
AbstractThis module aims to improve the skills and knowledge needed to create and deliver presentations in area of academic writing. The overall objective of the course is to provide a grasp on writing for scholar purposes in English.
Glossary1.Writing an abstract for academic purposes
Introduction: Main contents of an abstract
1.1 Define your research topic / question
1.2 Where to find bibliographic references
1.3 Why do you need to cite authors?
1.4 Research methodology
1.5 Revise your abstract for grammatical and spelling errors
1.6 Sample abstracts
1.7 Task: Write an abstract of around 300 words.
Learning OutcomesCandidates are expected to develop their writing skills in academic English. The delivery mode will be online. Content will be made available on the Learning Management System of the iPEN project and a writing exercise (an abstract of arounf 300 words) will be delivered by each student. It will be corrected by a professional teacher of academic English.
BibliographyBailey, S. 2011. Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students, Routledge
Cottrelle, S. 2014. Dissertations and Project Reports: A Step by Step Guide, Palgrave Study Skills
Michaelson, H. 1990. How to Write & Publish Engineering Papers and Reports, Oryx Press, (Chapter 6 discusses abstracts)
Cremmins, E. 1996. The Art of Abstracting 2nd Edition, Info Resources Press (written for professional abstractors)
Thomas, G. 2017. Doing Research, Pocket Study Skills
Williams, K. 2013. Planning Your Dissertation, Pocket Study Skills
External evaluatorTo be announced
Responsible AcademicTatiana Codreanu, Ph.D. (W2L)
Module TitleHow to Develop Critical Thinking
AbstractThis module is part of the set of Soft Skills modules, aiming transversal skills of participants to the iPEN project. Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally about what to do or what to believe. It includes the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking. This module will be geared towards fostering this ability for Higher Education students and staff.
Glossary-What is critical thinking?
-Improve our thinking skills
-Defining critical thinking
-Teaching critical thinking
-Beyond critical thinking
-Critical thinking assessment
Learning OutcomesParticipants will be able to
-understand the logical connections between ideas
-identify, construct and evaluate arguments
-detect inconsistencies and common mistakes in reasoning
-identify the relevance and importance of ideas
-reflect on the justification of one's own beliefs and values
BibliographyCottrelle, S. 2011. Critical Thinking Skills: Developing Effective Analysis and Argument, Palgrave Study Skills
External EvaluatorTo be Announced
Responsible AcademicKaterina Zourou, Ph.D.
Accredited ECTS2 ECTS
Module TitleTeaching Open Science and Copyright Policy
AbstractThis module targets transversal skills of participants in the iPEN project and is an introduction to the approaches, tools and common practices of Open Science. Concomitant terms (Open Notebook, Open Data, Open Research Software, Open Access) are explained and further developed as they can directly enrich each step of the scholarly lifecycle.
Glossary Section 1: Openness
Section 2: Openness in research: why?
Section 3: What is open science?
Section 4: open access to scientific publications
Section 5: Other forms of publishing
Section 6: open access to data
Section 7: choosing the right medium(s) to release your research
Section 8: Research ethics
Section 9: FAIR data management
Section 10: Open Science and research workflow
Section 11: Open research summary
BibliographyFarrow, R. 2016. A Framework for the Ethics of Open Education: Open Praxis, 8(2), 93-109. https://www.openpraxis.org/index.php/OpenPraxis/article/view/291
Tennant, J. 2017. Who Isn’t Profiting Off the Backs of Researchers? Discover Magazine, February 1.
Bond, S.2017. Dear Scholars, Delete Your Account At Academia.Edu Forbes, January 23
Tsoukala, V., Swan, A. 2015. Facilitate Open Science Training for European Research. The default is ‘Open’. https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/sites/default/files/pdf/1472.pdf
European IPR Helpdesk. 2015 Fact Sheet Publishing v. patenting. https://www.iprhelpdesk.eu/sites/default/files/newsdocuments/Patenting_v._publishing_0.pdf
European Commission, 2016. Guidelines on FAIR Data Management in Horizon 2020. http://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/data/ref/h2020/grants_manual/hi/oa_pilot/h2020-hi-oa-data-mgt_en.pdf
External Evaluator Will be announced later
Responsible AcademicKaterina Zourou, Ph.D (W2L)
Awarded ECTS1
Module TitleBuilding Personal Resilience
Abstract There are a lot of stressing parameters that a science trainees will experience during his or her career: (1) the mismatch between job demands and rewards; (2) lack of support from mentors; (3) the frustrations of scientific setbacks; (4) pressures to compete and excel; (5) the precarious work-life juggle; (6) limited job opportunities. Most trainees are not prepared for what they encounter in graduate school. For the 1st time experience do not be treated like future superstars they think are. Questions like: Why do some succeed while others fail? Some people believe that this is pure lack or some people have been born to succeed or to the individual talent. Latest scientific results showed that it is the personal resilience that some people succeed and others do not. An example of this can be an individuals reaction after a failure: one is feeling defeated while the other one is inspired to try harder. This short course aims to explain why resilience is important for a successful professional career, personal development. Moreover this module aims to teach how to raise an individuals' personal resilience
Glossary1. Why resilience is important
2. Definition of personal resilience
3. How to raise your resilience
4. Moving from Why to how to
5. How to evaluate personal resilience
Learning Outcomes How to evaluate and build students' or a professional personal resilience
Bibliography Research papers
External Evaluator Dr Maria Kartalou (Ex BCG Partner, Planning Director Thenamaris Marine Company)
Responsible Academic Ass. Prof. Kostantinos Petridis (TEI of Crete)
Awarded ECTS 2

iPEN Teaching oriented Modules

Module Title Introduction to Materials and Nanotechnology (for High School Teachers)
Abstract Nanotechnology is the ability to create materials, devices, and systems having fundamentally new properties and functions by working at the atomic, molecular, and supramolecular. These new properties are used as the basis for the development of new technology in electronics, magnetics, optoelectronics, medical diagnostics, alternative energy, and more. This course will cover the essential concepts of nanotechnology applying them in contemporary studies in nanotechnology. Subjects will largely be discussed through referral to current scientific literature.
Glossary (1) qualitative quantum mechanics
(2) size and scale
(3) size-dependent properties (e.g., SA/V, color, mechanical properties)
(4) characterization methods (e.g., AFM, STM, SEM TEM)
(5) fabrication approaches to nanomaterials (top-down, bottom-up)
(6) the making of nanotechnology (e.g., the development of the area, interdisicplinary nature of nanotechnology)
(7) dimensionality (e.g., how many nano dimensions are in the materials? And the influence on the elctronic properties of the molecule)
(8) classification of nanomaterials (acorrding different classification methods)
(9) innovation and application of nanotechnology (current and future applications of nanotechnology)
(10) functionality
Learning Outcomes Upon successful completion of this course students should be able to:
(1) Summarize the historical developmentof quantum mechanics
(2) Explain atomic spectra and chemical bonding using qualitative quantum mechanics
(3) rationalize the use and understand results of selected characterization methods: AFM, STM, TEM, SEM, XRD, XPS.
(4) Identify and discuss ethical issues regarding nanotechnology research and application
(5) Critically read and review current research literature in nanotechnology
(6) Build a presentation of a chosen area in nanotechnology based on synthesis of several research papers
(7) Identify the advantages, disadvantages and the potential of a chosen research.
(8) Evaluate peer presentations of different areas in nanotechnology
Bibliography Sakhnini, S., & Blonder, R. (2015). Essential concepts of nanoscale science and technology for high school students based on a Delphi study by the expert community. International Journal of Science Education, 37(11), 1699-1738. doi:10.1080/09500693.2015.1035687

Blonder, R. (2010). The influence of a teaching model in nanotechnology on chemistry teachers' knowledge and their teaching attitudes. Journal of Nano Education, 2, 67-75. doi: 10.1166/jne.2010.1004

Blonder, R. (2011). The story of nanomaterials in modern technology: An advanced course for chemistry teachers. Journal of Chemical Education, 88(1), 49-52. doi: 10.1021/ed100614f

Stevens, S., Sutherland, L. M., & Krajcik, J. S. (2009). The big ideas of nanoscale science and engineering: A guidebook for secondary teachers. Arlington, VA: NSTA Press.

Basic book: Introduction to Nanoscienceand Nanomaterials, Dinesh C. Agrawal
And contemporary research papers that will be selected according the participating interests.
External Evaluator Dr. Sohair Sakhnini (WIS)
Responsible Academic Prof. Ron Blonder (WIS)
Awarded ECTS 2
Module TitlePrinciples of Development of an online course: Principles & Applications
Abstract In this module we will introduce the teachers to the principles of development of an online course, to classify the pedagogical needs and the learning objective. We will try to understand the linkage between the pedagogical goals and the technology’s platform and tools, so the technology will support the learning and teaching in class and online.
Abstract In this module we will introduce the teachers to the principles of development of an online course, to classify the pedagogical needs and the learning objective. We will try to understand the linkage between the pedagogical goals and the technology’s platform and tools, so the technology will support the learning and teaching in class and online.

1. Course information and structure
The structure of the course and the course content is organized into logical models (e.g., weeks, units, modules, topics).
for the learners, their needs and their preferences.

2. Learning objectives
Learning objectives are clear and accurate.
- The course learning objectives, or course/program competencies.
- The module/unit learning objectives or competencies outcomes.
- There is a relationship between learning objectives, competencies and course activities.

3. Activities & Assignments
Activities and assignments are reelevated to the online course (face-to-face, hybrid, or online);
- The learning activities promote the achievement of the stated learning objectives or competencies.
- Learning activities provide opportunities for interaction that support active learning.
- The instructor’s plan for classroom response time and feedback on assignments is clearly stated.
- The learning content should be divided to small study units, this will make it easier for learners to remember the information.
4. Course Communication & Student Support
Multiple communication options are provided to support interaction among the instructor and students, and an open and respectful learning environment is established.

5. Learning Technologies
Learning technologies are used appropriately to facilitate learning and instructions are provided to enable students to successfully use the technologies. Educational interactions can be used, depending on the course ccommunication and the available technologies tools- The tools used in the course support the learning objectives and competencies.
- Course tools promote learner engagement and active learning.
- Technologies required in the course are readily obtainable.
- The course technologies are current.
6. Cooperative learning and sharing
Especially in online environments, it is important to provide the learners communication and collaboration options, that will enable dialogue and support (between themselves and with the course teachers).
7. Course Assessment & Evaluation
Students have an opportunity to provide useful feedback about the course, course site, and technologies used.
- The assessments measure the stated learning objectives or competencies.
- Specific and descriptive criteria are provided for the evaluation of learners’ work and are tied to the course objective.
- The assessment instruments selected are sequenced, varied, and suited to the learner work being assessed.
- The course provides learners with multiple opportunities to track their learning progress.

8. Monitoring learners' performance and progress
The technological solutions provide many possibilities for measuring the learners, based on their performance and behavior in the learning environment.

Awarded ECTS 2
Bibliography
External Evaluator To be announced
Glossary Course Information
Leaner's characterization
Learning objectives
Assignments
Learning Technologies tools
Pedagogical needs
Online course design
Educational interactions
Assessment & Evaluation
Cooperative learning
Learning Outcomes To help teachers develop an online course according to the pedagogical needs that are affected from the content and characteristics of the learners
Responsible Academic Eli Shmueli, Nadav Kavalerchik and Orit Baruth
Module TitleHow to use the Moodle Platform
Abstract In this module we will introduc the teachers to the Moodle learning management system, give them the tools to use the platform in effective ways. Expose them to the learning technologies and tools that will improve the learning and teaching processes.
Glossary • Module I: Introducing to Moodle platform
• Install a Moodle platform into your desktop
• How to use the MOODLE Platform
• How to develop a course
• Module II: How to create a course on Moodle platform
• how to set up your courses
• how to use the text editor and what the icons mean
• how to involve students actively in their learning
• how to add static materials to your course
• how to add extra items and information to the sides of your course page
• Module III: How to integrate Multimedia in to the course
How to integrate Images, audio files and video content within the Moodle courses
• Module III: Using Moodle Activities
we will explore the most critical tools used for assessment of learning in Moodle assignments for students, how to create and integrate quizzes and Survey.
• Week IV: Using Moodle Collaboratively
The Workshop module provides a peer-assessment tool within Moodle courses, and the Wiki provides opportunities for learners to collaboratively and create content. RSS is a technology enabling you to pull news stories from others sites into your course, or push use the forum to increase the communication beetwin the students.
• Module V: Coursemanagement
Using Moodle as an effective learning environment requires more than just writing good content. Actively and skillfully managing learners and courses is a vital teacher skill.

Learning Outcomes Teachers and students will be able to use the Moodle learning platform, help them to create and develop an online course, integrate learning content into the courses, and use deafferents tools to supports the pedagogical needs.
Bibliography https://moodle.org/
External Evaluator Nadav Kavalerchik, (Moodle expert)
Responsible Academic Eli Shmueli, Miki Alliel, IUCC
Awarded ECTS 2

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